A couple is considered infertile when they cannot become pregnant after a period of one year of unprotected sex. This difficulty in getting pregnant may be due to problems with both men and women, or both. When you cannot get pregnant, you should see a specialist doctor who will perform tests and tests on both partners to try to find out what is the cause of infertility. With the IUI treatment you need to have the best limits.
It is advisable to seek medical advice after one year, but in some cases tests may be performed earlier, such as in women over 35 or with irregular menstrual cycles. During the medical consultation, the necessary examinations and procedures will be performed to identify possible problems in both partners.
In men, the doctor will ask about their overall health and sex life. Then perform a physical exam. From this first analysis, your doctor may order one or more of the following tests:
- Tests to check sperm quantity and quality
- Blood tests to measure hormone levels and identify genetic disorders.
- Ultrasound examination, which creates images of the internal reproductive organs and enables the visualization of organ abnormalities.
- Urinalysis, which can identify if sperm is moving in the wrong direction and going into the bladder during intercourse rather than going outside the penis.
- Testicular biopsy, which is performed when the man has a small amount of sperm. This is an invasive procedure in which the doctor collects a small sample of testicular tissue and then observes it under a microscope to visualize sperm.
For the Women
In women, in turn, the doctor will ask about their health, their menstrual cycles and their sex life. soon after, I will also perform the physical examination. Then one or more of the following exams may be required:
- Blood tests to also check hormone levels and possible genetic abnormalities.
- Ovulatory tests to check if the woman is ovulating normally, i.e. if ovaries are being released every month.
- Imaging to observe the uterus and fallopian tubes: ultrasound, x-ray, or other exams that create internal images of the body and enable the visualization of possible abnormalities.
- Invasive procedures for viewing internal reproductive organs directly, where the doctor inserts a small tube with a camera at its end, through the vagina or through the skin.
After the tests and procedures are performed, the problem that is causing infertility is usually identified, so the couple can choose between the indicated treatments.
In some cases, there are problems that cannot be dealt with, or the problem cannot be identified even after all possible tests and examinations are performed. If this occurs, there are other treatments that doctors may recommend to assist couples.
Infertility is the absence of pregnancy after one year of well-distributed attempts throughout the menstrual cycle or without the use of contraceptive methods. It is estimated that 15% of couples will have some type of infertility during their reproductive life. Approximately 40% of infertility cases are female, 40% male and 10% both. Unidentifiable cases correspond to the remaining 10%.
The main causes of infertility in women are:
- Changes in ovulation.
- Obstruction in the fallopian tubes.
- Uterine myoma.
- Uterine malformations.
- Ovarian cysts.
- Ovarian insufficiency.
- Endocrinological alterations.
- Immunological infertility.
- Genetic alterations.
- Anti-fostolipid antibody syndrome.
How to Care and Treat
To determine the cause of couple infertility, it is important to have a good medical history, with data on personal history, family history, habits, complaints, menstrual cycle, medication use and obstetric history if any, and physical, general and complete gynecological.